closed Opened: 30 March 2022 | Closes: 31 May 2022
To fulfil the ambitions of a commercial zero emission aircraft a liquid hydrogen (LH2) fuel storage system is needed. In the first phase of Clean Hydrogen (2022-2025) two functional demonstrators shall be built. The demonstrators shall be in the range of 50 kg – 150 kg LH2 capacity due to technical objectives and the available budget. Objectives of the project are the design and development of a lightweight LH2 tank (demonstrator 1), and the integration of the storage system for a safe function and operation of a LH2 tank on board of an aircraft (demonstrator 2). This local operation is not in the scope of this topic.
Demonstrator 1: The LH2 tank will be used to address the need of a lightweight vessel. So, the demonstrator purpose is everything around the material selection (e.g. fibre reinforced materials) for the tank itself, liner and its insulation and the manufacturing of such a lightweight liquid hydrogen aircraft storage tank.
Demonstrator 2: The LH2 tank will be used to validate the operation of such a storage including design and integration of components needed for a safe function (filling, structural health monitoring, overpressure, thermal management, boil off, sloshing, vaporising depending on a system safety analysis).
Project results are expected to contribute to all of the following expected outcomes:
- The demonstrators will be used to develop and validate computational models addressing static and dynamic behaviour (sloshing) as well as component sizing capabilities;
- System models of the operational behaviour will be developed and validated on the basis of hydrogen by operating and testing these demonstrators. The system simulation should cover the static and especially the transient cases with the interaction and fluid motion of liquid hydrogen (sloshing) and thermodynamic environment in the tank. In fact, in space applications the pressure drop induced by these types of interactions is well known and accounted for in the cryogenic tank design. The models will be used for functional analysis with failure hazards assessment, system safety analysis and common mode analysis of the system;
- The storage vessels and associated components should withstand defined normal static and failure fatigue load cases as well as the demanding environmental (including shock & vibration) and reliability requirements associated with commercial aviation (DO160, DO178, DO254). At the same time the hydrogen storage design and its installation should account for thermal deformation as well as pressure and temperature fluctuations during operation and filling at a delta temperature of ~300 K;
- The vessel (demonstrator 1) is required to store hydrogen safely at cryogenic temperatures for extended durations, with low boil-off quantities (see KPI) as well as superior gas barrier properties. This requires insulation technologies that are durable and lightweight, as well as liner and tank wall concepts with low gas permeability;
- Vacuum technologies shall also be studied and matured in order to fulfil the aircraft operation needs;
- Adequate safety precautions have to be implemented, which are covered by a secure design together with measurement and monitoring sensors and detection system;
- Necessary non-destructive testing and other inspection methods are needed and have to be developed and validated, because also the build and acceptance of such a storage has to undergo specially defined qualification tests. Due to budget reasons, this will not be part of this road map.
Project results are expected to contribute to all of the following objectives of the Clean Hydrogen JU SRIA:
- Tank gravimetric efficiency [%weight]: 16 in 2024 and 35 in 2030
- LH2 tank capacity [kgLH2]: 50-150
- Dormancy: >24 hours
- Venting rate: < 2%/day
- Filling rate: 300-500 kg/h (for analysis 5 t/h)
- Boil-off : < 2%/day after dormancy
- Maximum diameter: < 1 m (for analysis <3m)
- Minimum operating pressure: 1 bar (pump fed) – 3 bar (pressure fed)
- Maximum operating pressure: 3 bar (pump fed) – 8 bar (pressure fed)
- Insulation Vacuum: 1*10^-5 mbar
Proposals should focus on the development of an aerospace applicable liquid hydrogen storage system. There are various thermal, mechanical, safety and system integration challenges associated with this. Compared to kerosene in the wing, hydrogen storage leads to additional mass for the aircraft and requires additional space (LH2 has 4 times the volume compared to kerosene at iso-energy content). Therefore it has a significant impact on the overall energy required for a mission due to both weight and volume with drag penalty.
Today’s hydrogen tanks for storing liquid hydrogen in aerospace are mostly made of metal. For space application this solution is still valid, because of power available, non-reuse and costs. But having in mind commercial aviation, the focus should be on enhancing the reliability of the metal tank and piping performance while designing a LH2 storage system made of light carbon fibre reinforced materials. Using these components, a significantly improved gravimetric index for the whole storage system can be achieved. The drawback of using these materials is that the laminate quality or laminate architecture are of particular importance for permeability. Different test specimens, different semi-finished products made of glass, carbon, fibres with polymer or metal matrix, different additives, liners and architectures as well as protective coatings have to be considered. In addition, a selection of adhesives has to be made for use in cryogenic environments.
Besides the material selection and definition and control of the manufacturing process other aspects of the function and safe operation of a liquid hydrogen storage should be taken into account. The pressure and temperature of the LH2 should be monitored to validate feed and fuel gauging functions under flight accelerations. The analysis of dynamic loads as a result of fuel sloshing should be addressed numerically and experimentally, as well as the pressure development in the tank due to the interaction of the sloshing hydrogen and the thermodynamic environment in the tank. The design solution should address the changing pressure by either active or passive means (e.g. active pressurisation control or passive anti-sloshing devices), to ensure safe operation of the engine feed systems.
A hydrogen content control and gauging system is required to provide accurate data on mission fuel throughout the flight, minimising unusable fuel and meeting all applicable airworthiness regulations. The structural integrity of the hydrogen tank has to be monitored by structural health monitoring (SHM), which can detect and locate damage. The system shall manage both normal and failed system states safely. Wireless and low energy systems shall be investigated to maximise safety and maintainability. The tank should have means to safely manage overpressure cases by a venting system to minimise risk of ignition and the impacts of cryogenic temperatures.
For operation the LH2 evaporation and gas warm-up requires a considerable amount of energy. It has to be investigated how the thermal load will be injected into the storage with a focus on transient behaviour and start-up procedures. The hydrogen fuel tank should be able to facilitate applications of hydrogen burn engines as well as hydrogen fuel cell-based powertrains with minor adaptations only, permitting for either centralised boil off or distributed boil off management.
Considerations to the refuelling interface should be given, but the interface it-self is out of scope of this topic. Boundary conditions for this refuelling consideration include:
- Aircraft refuelling at a rate of approximately 5 tonnes/hour with means to refuel a cold or a warm vessel
- The cryogenic fuel will be distributed from one, or multiple tanks in the aircraft to an end user system.
- A standard coupling as an interface to refill aligned or adapted as well with other mobility sectors that allows a safe, reliable operation by the ground staff.
The gained experiences on the two storage demonstrators will be used in phase 2 (2026-2030) to obtain and define the certification regulation of commercial aviation hydrogen storages. Furthermore, in phase 2 (2026-2030) larger tanks have to be developed to become flight worthy.
Activities are expected to start at TRL 1 achieve and TRL 3 by the end of the project (CFRP).
Activities are expected to start at TRL 2 achieve TRL 4 by the end of the project (system).
The conditions related to this topic are provided in the chapter 184.108.40.206 of the Clean Hydrogen JU 2022 Annual Work Plan and in the General Annexes to the Horizon Europe Work Programme 2021–2022 which apply mutatis mutandis.
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer
- Admissibility conditions:described inAnnex A and Annex E of the Horizon Europe Work Programme General Annexes
Proposal page limits and layout: described in Part B of the Application Form available in the Submission System
Additional condition: For all Innovation Actions the page limit of the applications are 70 pages.
- Eligible countries:described inAnnex B of the Work Programme General Annexes
A number of non-EU/non-Associated Countries that are not automatically eligible for funding have made specific provisions for making funding available for their participants in Horizon Europe projects. See the information in the Horizon Europe Programme Guide.
- Other eligibility conditions:described in Annex B of the Work Programme General Annexes
Additional eligibility condition: Maximum contribution per topic
For some topics, in line with the Clean Hydrogen JU SRIA, an additional eligibility criterion has been introduced to limit the Clean Hydrogen JU requested contribution mostly for actions performed at high TRL level, including demonstration in real operation environment and with important involvement from industrial stakeholders and/or end users such as public authorities. Such actions are expected to leverage co-funding as commitment from stakeholders. It is of added value that such leverage is shown through the private investment in these specific topics. Therefore, proposals requesting contributions above the amounts specified per each topic below will not be evaluated:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-01-07 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 9.00 million
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-03-03 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 30.00 million
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-03-05 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 15.00 million
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-04-01 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 7.00 million
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-06-01 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 25.00 million
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022-06-02 - The maximum Clean Hydrogen JU contribution that may be requested is EUR 8.00 million
Additional eligibility condition: Membership to Hydrogen Europe/Hydrogen Europe Research
For some topics, in line with the Clean Hydrogen JU SRIA, an additional eligibility criterion has been introduced to ensure that one partner in the consortium is a member of either Hydrogen Europe or Hydrogen Europe Research. This concerns topics targeting actions for large-scale demonstrations, flagship projects and strategic research actions, where the industrial and research partners of the Clean Hydrogen JU are considered to play a key role in accelerating the commercialisation of hydrogen technologies by being closely linked to the Clean Hydrogen JU constituency, which could further ensure full alignment with the Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda of the Industry and the SRIA188 of the JU. This approach shall also ensure the continuity of the work performed within projects funded through the H2020 and FP7, by building up on their experience and consolidating the EU value-chain. This applies to the following topics:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-07
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-08
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-10
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -02-08
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-03
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-05
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -04-01
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-01
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-02
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -07-01
Additional eligibility condition: Participation of African countries
For one topic the following additional eligibility criteria have been introduced to allow African countries to i) participate in proposal, ii) be eligible for funding and iii) ensure a sufficient geographical coverage of the African continent. This concerns the following topic:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -05-5
Manufacturing Readiness Assessment
For some topics a definition of Manufacturing Readiness Level has been introduced in the Annexes of the Annual Work Programme. This is necessary to evaluate the status of the overall manufacturing activities included in the following topics:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-04
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -04-01
- Financial and operational capacity and exclusion:described in Annex C of the Work Programme General Annexes
- Evaluation and award:
- Award criteria, scoring and thresholds are described in Annex D of the Work Programme General Annexes
- Submission and evaluation processes are described in Annex F of the Work Programme General Annexes and the Online Manua
Exemption to evaluation procedure: complementarity of projects
For some topics in order to ensure a balanced portfolio covering complementary approaches, grants will be awarded to applications not only in order of ranking but at least also to one additional project that is / are complementary, provided that the applications attain all thresholds
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-03
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-04
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-09
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -02-10
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-01
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-02
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-04
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -04-04
Seal of Excellence
For two topics the ‘Seal of Excellence’ will be awarded to applications exceeding all of the evaluation thresholds set out in this Annual Work Programme but cannot be funded due to lack of budget available to the call. This will further improve the chances of good proposals, otherwise not selected, to find alternative funding in other Union programmes, including those managed by national or regional Managing Authorities. With prior authorisation from the applicant, the Clean Hydrogen JU may share information concerning the proposal and the evaluation with interested financing authorities, subject to the conclusion of confidentiality agreements. In this Annual Work Programme ‘Seal of Excellence’ will be piloted for topics:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-01
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-02
- Indicative timeline for evaluation and grant agreement: described in Annex F of the Work Programme General Annexes
- Legal and financial set-up of the grants: described in Annex G of the Work Programme General Annexes
In addition to the standard provisions, the following specific provisions in the model grant agreement will apply:
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), background and results, access rights and rights of use (article 16 and Annex 5 of the Model Grant Agreement (MGA)).
- An additional information obligation has been introduced for topics including standardisation activities: ‘Beneficiaries must, up to 4 years after the end of the action, inform the granting authority if the results could reasonably be expected to contribute to European or international standards’. These concerns the topics below:
Additional information obligation for topics including standardisation activities
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -02-09
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-04
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -05-02
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -05-03
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -05-04
- For all topics in this Work Programme Clean Hydrogen JU shall have the right to object to transfers of ownership of results, or to grants of an exclusive licence regarding results, if: (a) the beneficiaries which generated the results have received Union funding; (b) the transfer or licensing is to a legal entity established in a non-associated third country; and (c) the transfer or licensing is not in line with Union interests. The grant agreement shall contain a provision in this respect.
Full capitalised costs for purchases of equipment, infrastructure or other assets purchased specifically for the action
For some topics, in line with the Clean Hydrogen JU SRIA, mostly large-scale demonstrators or flagship projects specific equipment, infrastructure or other assets purchased specifically for the action (or developed as part of the action tasks) can exceptionally be declared as full capitalised costs. This concerns the topics below:
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-07: electrolyser and other hydrogen related equipment essential for implementation of the project, (e.g. compression of hydrogen, storage and any essential end-use technology)
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-08: electrolyser, its BoP and any other hydrogen related equipment essential for the implementation of the project (e.g. hydrogen storage)
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -01-10: electrolyser, its BOP and any other hydrogen related equipment essential for implementation of the project (e.g. offshore infrastructure, renewable electricity supply infrastructure, storages, pipelines and other auxiliaries required to convey and utilise the hydrogen)
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -02-08: compression prototype/s and related components
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-03: trucks, fuel cell system, on-board hydrogen storage and other components needed in a hydrogen truck
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -03-05: vessels, fuel cell system, on-board hydrogen storage and other components needed in a hydrogen fuel cell hydrogen vessel
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -04-01: manufacturing equipment and tooling
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-01: hydrogen production plant, distribution and storage infrastructure and hydrogen end-uses
- HORIZON-JTI-CLEANH2-2022 -06-02: hydrogen production plant, distribution and storage infrastructure and hydrogen end-uses
- Specific conditions:described in thechapter 220.127.116.11 of the Clean Hydrogen JU 2022 Annual Work Plan
Application form — As well available in the Submission System from March 31st 2022
Model Grant Agreement (MGA)
Clean Hydrogen JU - Annual Work Programme 2022 (AWP 2022)
- AWP 2022
Clean Hydrogen JU - Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA)